Interactive Map

Interactive Map of Election Violence Events in England and Wales, 1832–1914


.User Instructions

The map (access link above) displays English and Welsh election violence that occurred during the 20 General Elections between 1832 and 1914. It contains nearly 3,000 events, ranging from outright riots, involving multiple deaths, to minor incidents, such as the breaking of windows.

On the bottom bar, the map can be filtered by election year(s) by clicking and dragging the blue slider across different election years, to show only those elections.

1852 and 1857 are selected here

The map can also be filtered to only show one or more event types, by clicking to select/deselect four approximate event intensity levels, ranging from riots to individual acts of violence.

all except riot are selected here

At the top right of the page, the map is searchable by constituency, town/borough, and village name. At the top left the historic county boundaries displayed (default) can be changed to constituency boundaries. More information on location and how the map displays constituency boundaries given that those change over time can be found here.

More details on how to explore the map can be found here.

We are confident with regard to the overall temporal and spatial patterns displayed even though our data collection is likely to have missed some events (the digitization of 19th-century newspapers is ongoing with new titles and articles being added on a daily basis). If you have any information regarding a violent event missing from the map or have identified mistakes or inaccuracies regarding the displayed election violence events, please do not hesitate to contact us at We are keen to improve and keep expanding our event database.

The event database in tabular form will be available in due course. In the meantime, if you are using information from this map, please use the following citation format:

Kuhn, Patrick M.; Luke Blaxill; Gidon Cohen; Gary Hutchison; Nick Vivyan [Year]. ‘Interactive Map of Election Violence Events in England and Wales, 1832-1914’, Causes and Consequences of Electoral Violence: Evidence from England and Wales,, Accessed [Date].